MetaDefender Anti-Malware Protection

Cloudinary is a cloud-based service that provides an end-to-end image and video management solution including uploads, storage, manipulations, optimizations and delivery.

Cloudinary offers a very rich set of asset uploading, manipulation and digital asset management capabilities. Cloudinary allows you to upload media files to the cloud, manipulate them on-the-fly and deliver them to your users optimized and cached via a fast CDN.

OPSWAT's MetaDefender detects and prevents advanced threats by incorporating multi-scanning and controlled data workflows. Cloudinary provides an add-on that enables you to incorporate MetaDefender's anti-malware detection into your media management activities. The MetaDefender add-on leverages multiple antivirus engines simultaneously to prevent viruses and malware from infecting your website or mobile application.

With MetaDefender's anti-malware add-on, you can extend Cloudinary's powerful cloud-based media library and delivery capabilities by automatically scanning both your own assets and those uploaded by your users. When using the MetaDefender add-on, uploaded files are automatically scanned, making sure that no virus or malicious code is delivered to your web and mobile viewers.

Automatic file scanning flow

The following describes the basic flow of uploading and displaying moderated assets using Cloudinary and the MetaDefender anti-malware add-on:

  • File upload

    • The asset is uploaded to Cloudinary.
    • The uploaded assets are set to a 'pending' status, with short-term CDN caching.
  • Asset moderation

    • The uploaded asset is sent to MetaDefender for asynchronous moderation in the background.
    • The asset is either approved or rejected by MetaDefender's anti-malware add-on.
    • An optional notification callback is sent to your application with the virus scanning results.
    • If the asset is approved, its cache settings are modified to be long-term.
    • A rejected asset is removed and moved to a secondary backup repository.
  • Manual override

    • Pending, approved and rejected assets can be listed programatically using Cloudinary's API or interactively using the Media Library in your account console.
    • You can manually override the automatic moderation using the API or Media Library.

Request file scanning

To request moderation of uploaded assets, set the moderation upload parameter to metascan:

Ruby:
Cloudinary::Uploader.upload("local_file.jpg", 
  :moderation => "metascan")
PHP:
\Cloudinary\Uploader::upload("local_file.jpg", 
  array("moderation" => "metascan"));
Python:
cloudinary.uploader.upload("local_file.jpg",
  moderation = "metascan")
Node.js:
cloudinary.v2.uploader.upload("local_file.jpg", 
  { moderation: "metascan" }),
  function(error, result){console.log(result);});
Java:
cloudinary.uploader().upload("local_file.jpg", 
  ObjectUtils.asMap("moderation", "metascan"));
.Net:
var uploadParams = new ImageUploadParams() 
{
  File = new FileDescription(@"local_file.jpg"),
  Moderation = "metascan"
};
var uploadResult = cloudinary.Upload(uploadParams);

The same goes for videos or raw files. Just make sure to set the resource_type parameter to video or raw when calling the upload method. For example:

Ruby:
Cloudinary::Uploader.upload("virus_check.txt", 
  :resource_type => :raw,
  :moderation => "metascan")
PHP:
\Cloudinary\Uploader::upload("virus_check.txt", 
  array(
    "resource_type" => "raw", 
    "moderation" => "metascan"));
Python:
cloudinary.uploader.upload("virus_check.txt", 
  resource_type = "raw",
  moderation = "metascan")
Node.js:
cloudinary.v2.uploader.upload("virus_check.txt", 
  { moderation: "metascan", 
    resource_type: "raw" }),
  function(error, result){console.log(result);});
Java:
cloudinary.uploader().upload("virus_check.txt",  
  ObjectUtils.asMap(
    "resource_type", "raw", 
    "moderation", "metascan"));
.Net:
var uploadParams = new RawUploadParams() 
{
  File = new FileDescription(@"virus_check.txt"),
  Moderation = "metascan"
};
var uploadResult = cloudinary.Upload(uploadParams);

Tip
You can use upload presets to centrally define a set of upload options including add-on operations to apply, instead of specifying them in each upload call. You can define multiple upload presets, and apply different presets in different upload scenarios. You can create new upload presets in the Upload page of the Management Console settings or using the upload_presets Admin API method. From the Upload page of the console settings, you can also select default upload presets to use for image, video, and raw API uploads (respectively) as well as default presets for image, video, and raw uploads performed via the Media Library UI.

The MetaDefender malware add-on performs the asset moderation asynchronously and should be completed within a few seconds or minutes, depending on file size.

The following snippet shows a sample response of an upload API call that indicates that the MetaDefender moderation is in the pending status.

{
  "public_id":"qtxkfkpmpiivr15bcrjh",
  "version":1531918030,
    ...
    ... 
 "secure_url":
  "https://res.cloudinary.com/demo/image/upload/v1531918030/qtxkfkpmpiivr15bcrjh.jpg",
 "moderation":[{"status":"pending", "kind":"metascan"}],
   ...
}

Status notification

Due to the fact that the MetaDefender add-on moderates media assets asynchronously, you may want to request a notification when the scanning process is completed.

When calling the upload API with the metascan parameter, you can set the notification_url to a public HTTP or HTTPS notification URL. Cloudinary sends a POST request to the specified endpoint when that MetaDefender scanning finishes.

Ruby:
Cloudinary::Uploader.upload("local_file.jpg", 
  :moderation => "metascan",
  :notification_url => "https://mysite.example.com/hooks",
  :public_id => "local_file")
PHP:
\Cloudinary\Uploader::upload("local_file.jpg", 
  array(
    "moderation" => "metascan",
    "notification_url" => "https://mysite.example.com/hooks",
    "public_id" => "local_file"));
Python:
cloudinary.uploader.upload("local_file.jpg",
  moderation = "metascan",
  notification_url = "https://mysite.example.com/hooks",
  public_id = "local_file")
Node.js:
cloudinary.v2.uploader.upload("local_file.jpg", 
  { moderation: "metascan",
    notification_url: "https://mysite.example.com/hooks",
    public_id: "local_file" },
  function(error, result){console.log(result);});
Java:
cloudinary.uploader().upload("local_file.jpg",
  ObjectUtils.asMap(
    "moderation", "metascan",
    "notification_url", "https://mysite.example.com/hooks",
    "public_id", "local_file"));
.Net:
var uploadParams = new ImageUploadParams() 
{
  File = new FileDescription(@"local_file.jpg"),
  Moderation = "metascan",
  PublicId = "local_file",
  NotificationUrl = "https://mysite.example.com/hooks"
};
var uploadResult = cloudinary.Upload(uploadParams);

The following JSON snippets are examples of POST requests sent to the notification URL when moderation is completed. The moderation_status value can be either approved or rejected:

{
  { 
    "moderation_response": 
    {
      "result_code": 0,
      "result": "No threat detected",
      "engine_results": [
        {
          "engine": "AegisLab",
          "result_code": 0,
          "threat_found": ""
        },
        {
          "engine": "Ahnlab",
          "result_code": 0,
          "threat_found": ""
        },
        {
          ...
            additional engines here
          ...
        }  
      ]
    },
    "moderation_status": "approved",
    "moderation_kind": "metascan",
    "moderation_updated_at": "2018-07-18T13:13:19Z",
      ...
      ...
    "notification_type": "moderation"
  }
}
 {
  "moderation_response": {
    "result_code": 1,
    "result": "Infected",
    "engine_results": [
      {
        "engine": "AegisLab",
        "result_code": 1,
        "threat_found": "EICAR-AV-Test"
      },
      {
        "engine": "Ahnlab",
        "result_code": 1,
        "threat_found": "EICAR_Test_File"
      },
      {
        ...
          additional engines here
        ...
      }    
    ]
  },
  "moderation_status": "rejected",
  "moderation_kind": "metascan",
  "moderation_updated_at": "2018-07-18T14:06:58Z",
    ...
    ...
  "notification_type": "moderation"
}

Query status

As an alternative to receiving a webhook when the moderation check finishes, you can poll Cloudinary's Admin API to check the moderation status of a previously uploaded asset:

Ruby:
Cloudinary::Api.resource('l8yvniicjhmyxuuqqyqy')
PHP:
$api = new \Cloudinary\Api();
$api->resource("l8yvniicjhmyxuuqqyqy");
Python:
cloudinary.api.resource("l8yvniicjhmyxuuqqyqy")
Node.js:
cloudinary.v2.api.resource('l8yvniicjhmyxuuqqyqy', 
  function(error, result){console.log(result);});
Java:
cloudinary.api().resource("l8yvniicjhmyxuuqqyqy", 
  ObjectUtils.emptyMap());
.Net:
var getResourceResult = cloudinary.GetResource(new GetResourceParams("l8yvniicjhmyxuuqqyqy"));

The following JSON snippet is the response of the Admin API resource details of a moderated image. As you can see, the moderation status is set to approved.

{"public_id":"blue_suit",
 "format":"jpg",
 "version":1531919587,
 "resource_type":"image",
 "type":"upload",
 "created_at":"2018-07-18T13:13:07Z",
 "bytes":21218,
 "width":361,
 "height":452,
 "url":
  "http://res-staging.cloudinary.com/newml/image/upload/v1531919587/blue_suit.jpg",
 "secure_url":
  "https://res-staging.cloudinary.com/newml/image/upload/v1531919587/blue_suit.jpg",
 "moderation":
  [{"response":
     {"result_code":0,
      "result":"No threat detected",
      "engine_results":
       [{"engine":"AegisLab", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Ahnlab", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"ByteHero", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"ClamAV", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Cyren", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Emsisoft", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Filseclab", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"K7", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"NANOAV", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Quick Heal", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Vir.IT eXplorer", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Vir.IT ML", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Xvirus Personal Guard",
         "result_code":0,
         "threat_found":""},
        {"engine":"Zillya!", "result_code":0, "threat_found":""}]},
    "status":"approved",
    "kind":"metascan",
    "updated_at":"2018-07-18T13:13:19Z"}],
 "next_cursor":
  "2c9c91253385d01bf4e2293b64a9dc9c4aa5904b4e78a0bb107b99ae0a851dd7",
 "derived":[]}

The example below queries the MetaDefender moderation status of an uploaded raw text file:

Ruby:
Cloudinary::Api.resource('virus-test.txt', :resource_type : "raw")
PHP:
$api = new \Cloudinary\Api();
$api->resource("virus-test.txt", array("resource_type" => "raw"));
Python:
cloudinary.api.resource("virus-test.txt", resource_type = "raw")
Node.js:
cloudinary.v2.api.resource('virus-test.txt', 
  { resource_type: "raw" },
  function(error, result){console.log(result);});
Java:
cloudinary.api().resource("virus-test.txt", 
  ObjectUtils.asMap("resource_type", "raw"));
.Net:
var getResourceParams = new GetResourceParams("virus-test.txt")
{
  ResourceType = "raw"
}
var getResourceResult = cloudinary.GetResource(getResourceParams);

This file contains a virus signature and therefore it is rejected. The JSON response includes details regarding the detected virus by all antivirus engines used by the MetaDefender add-on.

{
  "public_id": "virus-test.txt",
  "version": 1531907346,
  "resource_type": "raw",
  "type": "upload",
  "placeholder": true,
  "created_at": "2018-07-18T09:49:06Z",
  "bytes": 0,
  "backup": true,
  "url": "http://res-staging.cloudinary.com/vladimirs/raw/upload/v1531907346/virus-test.txt",
  "secure_url": "https://res-staging.cloudinary.com/vladimirs/raw/upload/v1531907346/virus-test.txt",
  "moderation": [
    {
      "response": {
        "result_code": 1,
        "result": "Infected",
        "engine_results": [
          {
            "engine": "AegisLab",
            "result_code": 1,
            "threat_found": "EICAR-AV-Test"
          },
          {
            "engine": "Ahnlab",
            "result_code": 1,
            "threat_found": "EICAR_Test_File"
          },
          {
            ...
              additional engines here
            ...
          }    
        ]
      },
      "status": "rejected",
      "kind": "metascan",
      "updated_at": "2018-07-18T09:49:30Z"
    }
  ],
  "next_cursor": "01d821c4f994cfabaf7312de266312becbc9e449107006d2adc2195a58635c4f",
  "derived": []
}

Anti-malware moderation queue

Cloudinary's Admin API can be used to list the queue of all moderated assets of a specific type -- image (default), video, or raw. You can list all three queues of pending, approved and rejected assets by specifying the second parameter of the resources_by_moderation API method.

Ruby:
Cloudinary::Api.resources_by_moderation("metascan", "pending")
PHP:
$api = new \Cloudinary\Api();
$api->resources_by_moderation("metascan", "pending");
Python:
cloudinary.api.resources_by_moderation("metascan", "pending")
Node.js:
cloudinary.v2.api.resources_by_moderation('metascan', 'pending', 
  function(error, result){console.log(result);});
Java:
cloudinary.api().resourcesByModeration("metascan", "pending", 
  ObjectUtils.emptyMap());
.Net:
var listResourcesResult = cloudinary.Api.ListResourcesByModerationStatus("metascan", "pending"));
{
 "resources":
  [{
    "public_id": "q7vcvrfjm9mj4bfp3qc8",
    "format": "jpg",
    "version": 1393794403,
    "resource_type": "image",
    "type": "upload",
    "created_at": "2017-03-02T21:06:43Z",
    "bytes": 120253,
    "width": 864,
    "height": 576,
    "backup": true,
    "url": 
     "https://res.cloudinary.com/demo/image/upload/v1393794403/q7vcvrfjm9mj4bfp3qc8.jpg",
    "secure_url": 
     "https://res.cloudinary.com/demo/image/upload/v1393794403/q7vcvrfjm9mj4bfp3qc8.jpg"
   },
   {
    "public_id": "zp4fgdbabhlwwa7bxu84",
    "format": "jpg",
    "version": 1393794399,
    "resource_type": "image",
    "type": "upload",
    "created_at": "2017-03-02T21:06:39Z",
    "bytes": 120253,
    "width": 864,
    "height": 576,
    "backup": true,
    "url": 
     "https://res.cloudinary.com/demo/image/upload/v1393794399/zp4fgdbabhlwwa7bxu84.jpg",
    "secure_url": 
     "https://res.cloudinary.com/demo/image/upload/v1393794399/zp4fgdbabhlwwa7bxu84.jpg"
   }
 ]
}

Manual override

While the automatic virus scanning of the MetaDefender add-on is very accurate, in some cases you may want to manually override the moderation decision. You can either approve a previously rejected asset or reject an approved one.

One way to manually override the moderation result is using Cloudinary's Media Library Web interface. From the left navigation menu, select Moderation. Then, from moderation tools list in the top menu, select MetaDefender and then select which moderation queue of videos to display (Pending, Rejected, or Approved).

  • When listing the queue of videos rejected by MetaDefender, you can click on the green Approve button to revert the decision and recover the original rejected video.
  • When listing the queue of videos approved by MetaDefender, you can click on the red Reject button to revert the decision and prevent a certain video from being publicly available to your users.

You can alternatively use Cloudinary's Admin API to programmatically override a specific moderation result. The following sample code uses the update API method while specifying a public ID of a moderated image (default resource type) and setting the moderation_status parameter to either the approved or the rejected status.

Ruby:
Cloudinary::Api.update("hwepb67oxzh4lrigssld", 
  :moderation_status => "approved")
PHP:
$api = new \Cloudinary\Api();
$api->update("hwepb67oxzh4lrigssld", 
  array("moderation_status" => "approved"));
Python:
cloudinary.api.update("hwepb67oxzh4lrigssld",
  moderation_status = "approved")
Node.js:
cloudinary.v2.api.update("hwepb67oxzh4lrigssld", 
  { moderation_status: "approved" },
  function(error, result){console.log(result);});
Java:
cloudinary.api().update("hwepb67oxzh4lrigssld", 
  ObjectUtils.asMap("moderation_status", "approved"));
.Net:
var updateParams = new UpdateParams("hwepb67oxzh4lrigssld")
{
  ModerationStatus = "approved"
};
var updateResult = cloudinary.Update(updateParams);